TermoDeck is a method of distributing heating, cooling and ventilation through hollow cores within the structural concrete of a building.
This Swedish invention was first used in the UK in the Elizabeth Fry Building at the University of East Anglia and allows ventilation to pass through the supporting structure of a building. This allows the thermal mass of the building to moderate the temperature of incoming air and eliminates the need for suspended ceilings to house separate ventilation ducts. The thermal mass of the building can absorb heat and retain heat in winter. In summer the ceiling units can be cooled overnight by circulating night air through them. This reduces the need for mechanical cooling systems during the day.
Hollow core concrete construction works well with Interseasonal Heat Transfer, as demonstrated at Howe Dell School, Hatfield.
A Ground Source Heat Pump ("GSHP") is used to extract heat from the ground and transfer it into a building to provide space heating.
GSHPs are now established technology with over a million installations (largely in North America, Sweden, Switzerland and Germany). GSHPs are emission free at the point of use and need no flue or chimney. A GSHP can achieve a coefficient of performance of 4 if used in conjunction with a low temperature delivery system like underfloor heating.
An ordinary GSHP can compete economically with conventional oil fired heating or electric storage heating. Gas fired heating may be cheaper than an ordinary GSHP installation, although a GSHP will have lower CO2 emissions.
It is possible, however, to double the CoP of a GSHP if used with an ICAX ThermalBank. A full Interseasonal Heat Transfer System (incorporating a solar collector, ThermalBank and GSHP) can show a lower annual heating cost than a gas fired boiler and can save over 50% of carbon emissions compared to a gas fired boiler. Using IHT is the key to energy savings in buildings.
The coefficient of performance ("CoP") is a measure of the efficiency of a given heat pump under standard conditions: the change in heat delivered over the electricity consumed. However, the CoP will vary greatly under different conditions: a modern heat pump should achieve a CoP of 4 if starting from a temperature of 10°C from the ground and delivering 40°C to underfloor heating. If the same pump starts from a temperature of 25°C from a ThermalBank it will have half as much work to do to achieve a 40°C output temperature, and this will double the CoP achieved.
Interseasonal Heat Transfer works by capturing heat energy from the sun via a collection pipe network just beneath the surface of black tarmac roads (or car parks or school playgrounds). It then stores the energy in computer-controlled Thermal Banks in the ground under the foundation of buildings, and releases it to heat the buildings in winter via heat pumps linked to underfloor heating.
ICAX uses a ground source heat pump to extract heat from the ThermalBank when it is needed to heat the building in winter. Unlike a normal ground source heat pump which typically starts with an autumn ground temperature of 10°C the heat pump in an Interseasonal Heat Transfer system starts with a temperature of over 25°C from the ThermalBank.
This doubles the Coefficient of Performance of the heat pump and allows a 50% saving of carbon emissions compared to providing heat from a gas boiler.
In addition, IHT can provide "Free Cooling" to extract some heat from buildings in summer at very little cost, or full active cooling using the principles of IHT in reverse.
TermoDeck® makes a good match for Interseasonal Heat Transfer.
Tarmac supplies TermoDeck® in the UK and the Republic of Ireland.
See also: Renewable Heat
See also: Renewable Cooling
See also: Banking on IHT